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Monday, May 16, 2016

Japanese Invasion of the Philippines, JAPWANCAP Stamps

Philippine Japanese Invasion Notes with JAPWANCAP Stamp

posted in: Banknotes | 0

At the 17 September 2015 meeting of the NSSA a member showed Philippine Japanese Invasion notes endorsed with a JAPWANCAP stamp. Japanese troops occupied the Philippines for over three years from late 1941 to early 1945 and introduced what are now called Japanese Invasion Money (JIM).

Illustrated are Philippine Japanese Invasion notes endorsed with a JAPWANCAP stamp indicating an attempt to recover value after WW2. The notes show considerable wear indicating a long period of circulation.

“The Japanese War Notes Claimants Association of the Philippines, Inc.” (JAPWANCAP) was founded in 1953 to lobby the Philippine and U.S. governments to redeem the notes or at least pay a fraction of their value.

The Claimants Association accepted the notes from the public for a fee, but the Philippine Government did not take up the proposal. In 1967 the Association also tried to sue the U.S. Government, but lost.

While JIM is relatively easy to obtain, notes with the JAPWANCAP over-stamp are seldom seen.

For more information on the issue of Japanese Invasion Money in the Phiippines and The Japanese War Notes Claimants Association of the Philippinesplease see this article on Wikipedia.

View of front of JAPWANCAP endorsed 1 Peso note and back of two notes showing two JAPWANCAP stamps.

Propaganda notes

The U.S. prepared a propaganda parody of the 5 rupee banknote issued for use in Burma from 1942 to 1944. The original note is dark purple with a yellow background. The American propaganda parody is similar on the front. The back bears two propaganda messages in the Kachin (a Burmese warrior tribe) language. It reads: “The Japanese Military Government commanded their troops in Burma to keep the following directives secret. The Military Government is issuing currency notes for your [the Japanese] use in Burma. Spend as much as you like for food and other things, but don't tell the (Kachin) people the secret of the money. Kachin! The Japanese are making these valueless notes for your use. It is easy to get these notes but very hard to buy food or other things. Avoid these notes or you will be cheated.”[6]

After World War II, an organization called "The Japanese War Notes Claimants Association of the Philippines, Inc." (JAPWANCAP) was founded on 8 January 1953. Its purpose was to pressure the Philippine and U.S. governments to redeem or to pay a fraction of the value of the Japanese military issues of currency for the Philippines. The Association held the notes, issued membership certificates, official ID cards and deposit pass books. These certificates were issued for a fee.[8] The Filipino legislature was not interested in pursuing the matter and nothing came of it. In 1967, JAPWANCAP unsuccessfully sued the United States government for reciprocity and lost. Court battles against Japan have raged until recently with cases going to Japan's highest courts. To date, no person issued Japanese Invasion money in place of their own money has been awarded compensation. Pursuant to the Treaty of San Francisco

signed September 1951 Japan made restitution on a national, not individual, level. Large amounts of Japanese Invasion Money still exists and most issues can be purchased cheaply by collectors.

Modern Japanese Financial History as Seen Through Its Currency - 3.6 The Wartime Economic System

Arlie Slabaugh, Japanese Invasion Money by Hewitt’s Numismatic Information Series (Chicago Press, 1967)

Wong Hon Sum, The Japanese Occupation of Malaya (Singapore) and its Currency (Singapore, 1996, ISBN 981-00-8190-1)

Klinger's Place: Japanese Occupation Pattern Coin

Stanley, Peter (2008). Invading Australia. Japan and the Battle for Australia, 1942. Melbourne: Penguin Group (Australia). pp. 159–162. ISBN 978-0-670-02925-9.

WW II Allied Propaganda Banknotes

Klinger's Place: Counterfeit JIM

Grams Databas.

My channel:

This Documentary shows the history of World War II operations in the Pacific, from the fall of Corregidor to Japanese surrender ceremonies in Tokyo Bay. The film concentrates on the Allied campaign against the Japanese in the Philippines of 1944-1945. The video contains captured Japanese films as well.

The Pacific War

The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia-Pacific War, was the Pacific theatre of World War II, which was fought in the Pacific Ocean, its islands, and in East Asia. It includes the Pacific Ocean theatre, the South West Pacific theatre, the South-East Asian theatre, and the Second Sino-Japanese War (including the 1945 Soviet-Japanese conflict).

It is generally considered the Pacific War began on 7/8 December 1941 with the invasion of Thailand for the invasion of British Malaya, and the attack on Pearl Harbor in the United States' Territory of Hawaii by the Empire of Japan. Some authors consider that the conflict in Asia dates back to 7 July 1937, beginning with the Second Sino-Japanese War between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China, or possibly 19 September 1931, beginning with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria.

The Pacific War saw the Allied powers pitted against the Empire of Japan, the latter briefly aided by Thailand and to a much lesser extent by its Axis allies, Germany and Italy. The war culminated in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and other large aerial bombing attacks by the United States Army Air Forces, accompanied by the Soviet invasion of Manchuria on 8 August 1945, resulting in the surrender of Japan and the end of fighting during World War II on 15 August 1945. The formal and official surrender of Japan occurred aboard the battleship USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay on 2 September 1945.

Japanese Threat to Australia

In late 1941, as Japan struck at Pearl Harbor, most of Australia's best forces were committed to the fight against Hitler in the Mediterranean Theatre. Australia was ill-prepared for an attack. While still calling for reinforcements from Churchill, the Australian Prime Minister John Curtin called for American support on 27 December 1941.

Australia had been shocked by the speedy collapse of British Malaya and Fall of Singapore in which around 15,000 Australian soldiers became prisoners of war. Curtin predicted that the "battle for Australia" would now follow. The Japanese established a major base in the Australian Territory of New Guinea in early 1942. On 19 February, Darwin suffered a devastating air raid, the first time the Australian mainland had been attacked.

U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt ordered his commander in the Philippines, General Douglas MacArthur, to formulate a Pacific defence plan with Australia in March 1942. Curtin agreed to place Australian forces under the command of MacArthur, who became Supreme Commander, South West Pacific.

The Japanese Conquest of the Philippines in 1941--1942

The Philippines Campaign of 1941--1942 or the Battle of the Philippines 1941--1942 was the invasion of the Philippines by Japan in 1941--1942 and the defense of the islands by Filipino and United States forces.

The defending forces outnumbered the Japanese invaders by 3 to 2, but were a mixed force of non-combat experienced regular and newly created units; the Japanese used their best first-line troops at the outset of the campaign. The Japanese 14th swiftly overrun most of Luzon.

The Japanese high command, believing they had won the campaign, made a strategic decision to advance by a month their timetable of operations in Borneo and Indonesia, withdrawing their best division and the bulk of their airpower in early January 1942. This, coupled with the decision of the defenders to withdraw into a defensive holding position in the Bataan Peninsula, enabled the Americans and Filipinos to successfully hold out for four more months.

Allied Campaign Against the Japanese in the Philippines of 1944--1945

The Liberation of the Philippines was the American and Filipino campaign to defeat and expel the Imperial Japanese forces occupying the Philippines. The Liberation of the Philippines commenced with amphibious landings on the eastern Philippine island of Leyte on October 20, 1944, and hostilities in a small part of the Philippines continued through the end of the war in August 1945.

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